第五章 民事权利 第二节 债权
Section 2 Creditors' Rights
Article 84 A debt represents a special relationship of rights and obligations established between the parties concerned, either according to the agreed terms of a contract or legal provisions. The party entitled to the rights shall be the creditor, and the party assuming the obligations shall be the debtor.
The creditor shall have the right to demand that the debtor fulfil his obligations as specified by the contract or according to legal provisions.
Article 85 A contract shall be an agreement whereby the parties establish, change or terminate their civil relationship. Lawfully established contracts shall be protected by law.
Article 86 When there are two or more creditors to a deal, each creditor shall be entitled to rights in proportion to his proper share of the credit. When there are two or more debtors to a deal, each debtor shall assume obligations in proportion to his share of the debt.
Article 87 When there are two or more creditors or debtors to a deal, each of the joint creditors shall be entitled to demand that the debtor fulfil his obligations, in accordance with legal provisions or the agreement between the parties; each of the joint debtors shall be obliged to perform the entire debt, and the debtor who performs the entire debt shall be entitled to ask the other joint debtors to reimburse him for their shares of the debt.
Article 88 The parties to a contract shall fully fulfil their obligations pursuant to the terms of the contract.
If a contract contains ambiguous terms regarding quality, time limit for performance, place of performance, or price, and the intended meaning cannot be determined from the context of relevant terms in the contract, and if the parties cannot reach an agreement through consultation, the provisions below shall apply:
(1) If quality requirements are unclear, state quality standards shall apply; if there are no state quality standards, generally held standards shall apply.
(2) If the time limit for performance is unclear, the debtor may at his convenience fulfill his obligations towards the creditor; the creditor may also demand at any time that the debtor perform his obligations, but sufficient notice shall be given to the debtor.
(3) If the place of performance is unclear, and the payment is money, the performance shall be effected at the seat or place of residence of the party receiving the payment; if the payment is other than money, the performance shall be effected at the seat or place of residence of the party fulfilling the obligations.
(4) If the price agreed by the parties is unclear, the state-fixed price shall apply. If there is no state-fixed price, the price shall be based on market price or the price of a similar article or remuneration for a similar service.
If the contract does not contain an agreed term regarding rights to patent application, any party who has completed an invention-creation shall have the right to apply for a patent.
If the contract does not contain an agreed term regarding rights to patent application, and technological research achievements, the parties shall all have the right to use such achievements.
Article 89 In accordance with legal provisions the agreement between the parties on the performance of a debt may be guaranteed using the methods below:
(1) A guarantor may guarantee to the creditor that the debtor shall perform his debt. If the debtor defaults, the guarantor shall perform the debt or bear joint liability according to agreement. After performing the debt, the guarantor shall have the right to claim repayment from the debtor.
(2) The debtor or a third party may offer a specific property as a pledge.
If the debtor defaults, the creditors shall be entitled to keep the pledge to offset the debt or have priority in satisfying his claim out of the proceeds from the sale of the pledge pursuant to relevant legal provisions.
(3) Within the limits of relevant legal provisions, a party may leave a deposit with the other party. After the debtor has discharged his debt, the deposit shall either be retained as partial payment of the debt or be returned. If the party who leaves the deposit defaults, he shall not be entitled to demand the return of the deposit; if the party who accepts the deposit defaults, he shall repay the deposit in double.
(4) If a party has possession of the other party's property according to contract and the other party violates the contract by failing to pay a required sum of money within the specified time limit, the possessor shall have a lien on the property and may keep the retained property to offset the debt or have priority in satisfying his claim out of the proceeds from the sale of the property pursuant to relevant legal provisions.
Article 90 Legitimate loan relationships shall be protected by law.
Article 91 If a party to a contract transfers all or part of his contractual rights or obligations to a third party, he shall obtain the other party's consent and may not seek profits therefrom. Contracts which according to legal provisions are subject to state approval, such as transfers, must be approved by the authority that originally approved the contract, unless the law or the original contract stipulates otherwise.
Article 92 If profits are acquired improperly and without a lawful basis, resulting in another person's loss, the illegal profits shall be returned to the person who suffered the loss.
Article 93 If a person acts as manager or provides services in order to protect another person's interests when he is not legally or contractually obligated to do so, he shall be entitled to claim from the beneficiary the expenses necessary for such assistance.